Skip links

Cornea

Cornea

What is Corneal Transplantation?

Corneal Transplantation or Grafting is a fine micro surgery where a defective Cornea is replaced by a healthy donated Cornea. The Cornea of a departed donor is gifted by a humanitarian family and is collected & processed by an eye bank. Cornea grafting is a highly skilled day care surgery. In spite of enormous research, there is no synthetic equivalent to God given precious Cornea.

The cornea is the clear tissue at the front and center of the eye. Its transparency permits light to pass in to the eye.it helps protect the eye from infection and foreign material.

When would one need a corneal transplantation?

Corneal transplantation is suggested when medicines fail to heal corneal diseases or when glasses or contact lenses cannot restore the vision due to corneal irregularities. Infections, Keratoconus, Injuries, scarring due to various reasons, corneal failure from previous surgeries, birth diseases etc. are some of the causes for corneal diseases. Cornea donors can be of any age, sex or blood group. Corneas are only collected from donors after death. Common health issues like Diabetes, Hypertension, Thyroid imbalances, use of spectacles etc. do not affect the health of the donor cornea. Corneas from persons having corneal diseases, advanced cancer, communicable diseases like HIV, Rabies, Hepatitis, Viral brain infections etc., are not accepted.

Types of Corneal transplantation

Penetrating Keratoplasty:
Here the entire thickness of the diseased Cornea is replaced by a healthy donor Cornea & is secured by multiple tiny sutures. It takes a few months to years for the patient to get back his potential vision.

Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty: (DALK)
Here the defective outer part of the Cornea is replaced, leaving behind the healthy inner Descemet’s and endothelial layer. The risk of graft rejection is lesser in this procedure.

Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty: (DSEK)
Contrary to the previous surgery, only the unhealthy innermost layers of the Cornea are replaced with a thin layer donor Cornea, which includes some stroma Descemet’s and the healthy endothelium. This allows faster recovery of vision and better corneal integrity.

What are the different types of corneal disease

Infection

  • Bacterial
  • Fungal or Viral keratitis

Trauma

  • Abrasions or exposure to toxic chemicals

Nutritional deficiency

  • Vit. A deficiency

Allergies

  • Vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis

Growth

  • Ptergiyum or benign or malignant cancerous growth on the eye’s surface

Ectasia(thinning)

  • Keratoconus or thinning of cornea following refractive laser surgery
  • The cornea can also be damaged secondarily by other common eye conditions such as; dry eye , eye lid disorders , glaucoma

Keratoconus

Keratoconus is a disorder of the eye which results in progressive thinning of cornea

Causes

Exact causes are unknown. It is believed to occur due to genetic, environmental and hormonal factors

Symptoms

Blurring of vision

Light sensitivity

Near sightedness

Treatment

Glass

Contact lens (RGP lens)

Surgery (C3R-corneal collagen cross linking)

Diagnosis

Visual acuity

Retinoscopy

Opthalmoscopy

Corneal topography

Dry eye

Dry eye occurs the eye does not produce tears properly, or when the tears are not of the correct consistency and evaporate too quickly

Symptoms

Burning of the eye

Foreign body sensation

Pain and redness of the eye

Blurring of vision

Causes

Ageing

Changes in the hormone

Exposure to sun, wind or dry climate

Contact lens over time use

Eye injury

Rheumatoid arthritis

Treatment

Treatment depends on sensitivity. Lubricating eye drops can be given

Pterygium

Pterygium is a growth of the conjunctiva that occurs the white part opf your eye over conjunctiva

Causes

Exact causes are unknown. Certain elements causes higher risk of developing this condition are UV radiation, pollen,sand,smoke and wind

Symptoms

Redness

Blurring of vision

Foreign body sensation

Itching

Treatment

Medication

Surgery